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  • Writer's pictureLilo Pelekai

Behind the Blues: Understanding Depression

Updated: Jul 4

Understanding Depression

The Biological Underpinnings of Depression

Depression, a multifaceted mental health disorder, profoundly affects the brain's biological functions. To understand its complexity, examining how depression impacts brain structures, neurotransmitter activity, and the tragic connection to suicide is essential.

Brain Structures Affected by Depression

Several key brain regions are notably affected in individuals with depression. The hippocampus, vital for memory and learning, often appears smaller in those experiencing depression. Research suggests that prolonged exposure to stress hormones, such as cortisol, inhibits the growth of new neurons in this region, leading to its shrinkage.

The amygdala, which processes emotions, tends to be hyperactive in people with depression. This increased activity makes individuals more sensitive to emotional stimuli, amplifying feelings of sadness, anxiety, and fear. Meanwhile, the prefrontal cortex, responsible for decision-making and regulating emotions, often shows reduced activity, contributing to symptoms like indecisiveness and lack of motivation.

Neurotransmitter Imbalances

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers in the brain, and their imbalance is a hallmark of depression. Three key neurotransmitters are particularly involved:

1. Serotonin: Crucial for mood regulation, a serotonin deficiency is linked to increased feelings of sadness and anxiety.

2. Norepinephrine: This neurotransmitter affects attention and action responses. Imbalances can lead to fatigue and a lack of interest in daily activities.

3. Dopamine: Influences pleasure and reward pathways. Dysregulation of dopamine is associated with anhedonia (loss of pleasure in activities) often seen in depression.

Genetic Factors

Genetics also play a significant role in depression, although they do not solely determine its occurrence. Individuals with a family history of depression have a higher likelihood of developing the condition. Specific genes linked to neurotransmitter systems have been identified, suggesting a hereditary component. However, the interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental factors ultimately influences the onset of depression.

Depression and Suicide

Depression is a leading cause of disability globally and significantly increases the risk of suicide. Data from the American Foundation for Suicide Prevention indicate that depression is present in approximately 50% of all suicides. In the United States, suicide ranks as the tenth leading cause of death, with over 48,000 fatalities annually. Furthermore, for each suicide, there are an estimated 25 attempts, underscoring the severe impact of depression on individuals.

Biological Markers: BDNF

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein that supports neuron growth and survival. Individuals with depression often exhibit lower levels of BDNF. This reduction is linked to the atrophy of critical brain regions and decreased neuroplasticity, impairing the brain's ability to adapt and recover from stress.


Depression's biological impact is extensive, affecting brain structures, neurotransmitter systems, and increasing the risk of suicide. Understanding these biological aspects is crucial for developing effective treatment strategies. Addressing the biological, psychological, and social dimensions of depression is vital in reducing its burden and preventing its most severe consequences.

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